Chen Qingtai needs to change his mind to support e

2022-08-09
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Chenqingtai: supporting emerging industries still needs to "change your mind"

[introduction: vigorously cultivating new strategic emerging industries is a major deployment made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council to transform the mode of economic development and seize the commanding heights of the global science and technology economy, which has received positive responses from relevant departments and governments at all levels. As emerging industries are completely different from traditional industries, at present, on some key issues, such as whether China can develop emerging industries, how to develop emerging industries, and how the government should give full play to them Role, etc., the understanding is not consistent, the thought is not unified, the policy is not perfect, the path is not clear, and the measures are not effective. Some time ago, Chen Qingtai, member of the Standing Committee of the 10th CPPCC National Committee and deputy director of the economic committee, and former deputy director of the research center of the State Council, conducted in-depth research throughout the country. Recently, I conducted an exclusive interview with him on the above issues

today's exclusive interview is the second: "developing emerging industries requires confidence and tolerance". (Part I: developing emerging industries requires confidence and tolerance)

the current practice is that enterprises declare, and government departments choose projects and spend money, which not only leads to inefficient use of government funds, but also prone to policy failure. On the one hand, enterprises can ask the government for money by making up a story; On the other hand, it will lead to the loss of money and the lack of separation between government and enterprises.

emerging industries often arise on the edge of industries with traditional division of labor. Some emerging industries will profoundly change the social mode of production and lifestyle. Therefore, its development needs to break through the barriers of traditional division of labor and the fetters of existing management system

the key is to cultivate innovation ability, and the government needs to create a market environment suitable for innovation

: emerging industries are different from traditional industries, should the government's work ideas be adjusted accordingly

chenqingtai: Yes. The development of emerging industries is a ramp up in productivity. This means that we should upgrade the economic activities that we have long been familiar with, such as introducing foreign capital, technological imitation, accepting industrial transfer, and focusing on low-end manufacturing. It mainly relies on independent technology sources, domestic capital and its own strength to develop innovative technology into advanced products, so as to realize industrialization and grow into an emerging industry

the key factor to realize this change is innovation ability. The government should focus on cultivating independent innovation ability and mastering core technology. Without core technology, emerging industries are out of the question

: how should the government cultivate the ability of independent innovation

Chen Qingtai: emerging industries are supported by scientific and technological innovation. Therefore, the focus of the government is whether innovative resources can be effectively gathered and whether these resources can play a higher efficiency locally. Innovation activities are more demanding on environmental conditions than any other investment. Innovative resources such as talent, technology and capital have strong liquidity. Each city can attract national and even global resources, but local resources may also flow out. The flow of innovation resources depends on where there is a more suitable market environment for innovation

: what are the market environments suitable for innovation

chenqingtai: including soft environment and hard environment. For example, local infrastructure; The convenience of the establishment and exit of the company; The level of University and educational development; The quality of personnel and the flexibility of talent flow; Integrity environment and financing costs; Professional service level of venture capital, management consulting, certified public accountants, etc; Development degree of technology and property rights trading market; The degree of connection between local economic activities and the international market; Judicial justice and judicial efficiency; The regulation, stability and transparency of government regulation; The service capacity and administrative efficiency of the government

if these can be achieved, this region will become a depression for innovative talents, a paradise for technological innovation, a paradise for entrepreneurs to start businesses, and a habitat for high-tech start-ups

after the technological breakthrough, the market bottleneck needs to be broken. The government should take more measures to solve the problem of market failure

: how can the government follow up after emerging industries break through the technological threshold

chenqingtai: in the development of emerging industries, after breaking through the barrier that microswitches should be in a relaxed state, there comes a wider and more complex industrialization bottleneck. The technology of emerging industries is not perfect, the production has not yet reached the economic scale, the supporting facilities and service system can not keep up, the business model is immature, and the degree of market recognition is low. They often encounter trust bottlenecks, capital bottlenecks, institutional bottlenecks and market bottlenecks

some technologies and products have great social benefits and good prospects, but the initial stage of industrialization is obviously uneconomical for producers and consumers. Without the boost of strong national policies and measures, it may die prematurely because it is unable to overcome the bottleneck of industrialization. For example, lasers, semiconductors, etc., we can generally keep up with the world level in the research and development stage, but we will be defeated in the industrialization stage, followed by the introduction and re introduction

: what can the government do to avoid repeating the mistakes

Chen Qingtai: the government can't directly help enterprises to develop a close cooperation field between Bayer Material Technology and footwear brands, automated production line manufacturers, adhesive manufacturers and other industry partners, but it can play the role of policies to solve the problem of market failure. Relevant policies can be broadly divided into four categories

first, guiding and regulatory policies. Organize research on industrial development strategy and grasp the direction of industrial development. Formulate special plans to promote the development of some emerging industries into national strategies. Organize and promote major science and technology projects. When the technology is relatively mature, timely organize the formulation of technical standards, screen technical routes, and explore the role of business models

second, incentive policies. At the initial stage of the development of emerging industries, market access should be liberalized, which is the greatest support for new entrants. Opening up market exports for emerging industries and innovative products, such as government procurement, is the biggest incentive for innovative enterprises. In addition, policies should be implemented to encourage enterprises to increase R & D investment

third, restrictive policies. The resource tax should be raised to reflect the degree of resource scarcity. Reform the price formation mechanism of resource products to truly reflect the relationship between supply and demand. Formulate and implement mandatory energy consumption standards and pollutant discharge standards, and strictly enforce the law. Formulate carbon emission tax policies and announce them to the society as soon as possible

fourth, safeguard policies. Encourage the development of industrial investment funds and provide investment subsidies when necessary to help solve the problem of financing difficulties in the early stage of industrialization. The government should take the lead in planning and organizing market forces to build relevant infrastructure and government subsidies to carry out demonstration projects

the method of financial assistance must be improved, and the gem listing should be gradually changed from the approval system to the registration system

: in the development of emerging industries, the government's financial support is indispensable or the vanadium industry and the vanadium battery industry are lack of upstream and downstream relations. What is your opinion

chenqingtai: at the critical moment when some key links of important industries are facing upgrading breakthroughs, the government needs to invest sufficient funds and policies

financial support is mainly in three aspects: first, direct investment of financial funds. It is mainly used for basic research, cutting-edge high-tech research, social welfare research, etc. The second is to support the expansion of R & D funding sources for enterprises and encourage social funds to support R & D activities of universities and research institutions. Third, R & D subsidies before competition and encouraging innovative results with social benefits

there are two options to support industrial upgrading with financial funds. First, from the production and supply side, support the process of innovation and improve the supply of technology and products; The second is to support the application of innovative results from the consumption and demand side

: what do you think should be the focus of financial support

Chen Qingtai: the leading aspects of financial support should more reflect the principles of pre competition, compensation for demanders and fairness. What we are good at is supplying. The current practice is that enterprises declare, government departments choose projects and pay money, and evaluate, identify and commend the results, which not only makes the use of government funds inefficient, but also prone to policy failure. On the one hand, enterprises can ask the government for money by making up a story, so as to get the opportunity of rent-seeking and profit-making; On the other hand, it will lead to the separation of government and enterprises

: financing difficulty is a common problem faced by emerging industries. What should the government do in this regard

chenqingtai: at present, in the face of increasingly active innovation activities, the guarantee conditions for investment funds, management consulting, listing exit channels and other innovation activities are insufficient. Therefore, the government should implement policies to encourage the development of venture capital, vigorously develop angel investment, venture capital, venture capital and equity investment, and meet the needs of emerging industry enterprises at different stages of development and at different levels. In addition, a perfect exit channel can effectively guide capital inflows. Develop the OTC market under the condition of perfect regulation and effective supervision. For the gem, we should pay close attention to the study of changing the current listing approval system into the registration system, greatly increasing the number of listed enterprises, and truly giving full play to the role of the gem

to prevent enterprises from missing development opportunities because of too many mothers in law, administrative monopoly must be gradually broken

: when we interview some enterprises belonging to emerging industries, the person in charge often sighs because of too many mothers in law

Chen Qingtai: emerging industries often arise on the edge of industries with traditional division of labor. Some emerging industries will profoundly change the social mode of production and lifestyle. Therefore, its development needs to break through the barriers of traditional division of labor and the fetters of the existing management system

: how should the government remove institutional obstacles

chenqingtai: we should mainly start from two aspects. First, reform the management system that does not adapt to the development of emerging productive forces. At present, in the development of emerging industries, when institutional obstacles appear, first of all, we should break the division of departments and regions and the limitation of interests, and strengthen the unified leadership and coordination at the national level; When necessary, the management system should be adjusted in accordance with the principles of separating government from enterprises, separating government from affairs, and separating government from supervision

------ Li Dequn, academician of the Academy of Engineering/Supervisor of the founding Committee of the State Key Laboratory of mold technology, Huazhong University of science and technology

the second is to break the industry monopoly. Monopoly often produces the tendency of anti technological progress. In order to prevent the so-called political risks, some state-owned enterprises prefer to trade within the system or buy foreign technologies and products. In fact, there are transaction barriers in the purchase of technologies and products of private enterprises. National Science and technology investment is also more inclined to state-owned enterprises. Many innovations in professional fields come from private enterprises, but the main users are monopoly large enterprises. Users in a monopoly position often lack the willingness to purchase domestic innovative products because they do not have the pressure to reduce costs and improve services. Once some promising innovations are rejected by monopoly enterprises, it is difficult or impossible for other companies to adopt them. This means that this innovation is stillborn

too many administrative monopoly fields will squeeze the space for innovation activities. We should start from the non natural monopoly field, speed up the reform of monopoly industries, break monopoly and promote competition. This is the inevitable choice to liberate the productive forces under the new situation, and it is also a key to the development of China's emerging industries

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