Production technology, processing and packaging of

  • Detail

Production technology and processing packaging of Shayang salted duck Abstract: This paper introduces the production technology of Shayang salted duck, and applies HACCP (hazard analysis and key control) theory to standardize its production process; Strict quality control is required for 9 key points (hazards) such as raw material selection, slaughtering, depilation, cleaning, pre cooling, curing, baking, plastic packaging, storage and transportation, so as to ensure the quality of products

key words: Shayang salted duck; Poultry processing; HACCP (hazard analysis and key control)

there are various types of salted duck in China, among which Shayang salted duck in Sha county has a long history According to the records of Shaxian County annals, Shayang salted duck was a popular traditional folk food as early as the Song Dynasty Before 1990, Shayang salted duck was only processed and eaten by folk farmers or urban residents before the Spring Festival or as a gift to relatives and friends Since 1992, Shaxian County Government has vigorously developed the processing of salted duck. So far, there have been 11 small production lines In 1998, the county processed 3.5 million salted ducks annually, and the total output value of the duck industry reached more than 100million yuan, becoming a leading industry for local farmers to get rich At present, the main problems in the production of salted duck are unstable quality and short shelf life In order to better regulate the processing technology of Shayang salted duck, with reference to relevant materials [], it is proposed to establish the following HACCP (hazard analysis key control) quality management system to ensure the stability of the quality of salted duck processing and improve production efficiency

1 the production process and defects of Shayang salted duck

the traditional farmer family produces Shayang salted duck mostly in autumn and winter, usually after November, and the peak period of processing salted duck is in the early spring festival In winter, Shaxian County has many sunny days, low temperature (℃), windy and dry, and large temperature difference between day and night Processing the salted duck is to heat and depilate the duck after slaughtering, remove the viscera from the chamber, wash, remove the wings and claws, cut off the lower part of half the head, and then marinate it with salt and brine. After D, take it out, support the duck with bamboo sticks into a flat surface, hang it in the sun or under the eaves to dry it, and finally need further smoking, that is, it becomes a salted duck product with a long shelf life After Shaxian County Government established the duck industry corporation in 1992, it improved the traditional salting and deep-processing technology of salted duck. The main process flow is: Duck temporary breeding → electric shock killing → artificial depilation with rosin → gutting → removing claws, wings and half of the lower part of the head → salting → brine immersion → far-infrared baking and drying room baking and dehydration → plastic surgery → vacuum packaging → products

at present, the product quality of this improved semi mechanized factory production is not better than that of the salted duck produced by farmers in winter, and there is a gap between the taste and flavor and the traditional method The main reason is that most enterprises have a large number of microorganisms in the process of cleaning, curing and packaging Using far-infrared baking at about ℃, the duck's oil flow is more serious than that of the traditional method. When the salted duck comes out of the oven, its peroxide value is already high. Its products taste a little oily after 15 days of vacuum packaging in summer, which is significantly aggravated after D. the shelf life of the products is difficult to reach 60 days, which limits the year-round mass production of Shayang salted duck

2 evaluation of harm and risk

2.1 risk of duck slaughtering process

duck slaughtering is from raw duck selection to clean bore treatment to become bare poultry Qualified raw duck is the premise to ensure the quality of products, but at present, the raw duck for processing Shayang salted duck is mostly local semi muscovy duck, which is characterized by too much fat, serious oil flow in the baking process, and most of the fat is degraded; Farmers processing or enterprises processing salted duck, ignoring the disease detection of raw duck; The cleaning, disinfection and fasting of ducks before slaughter do not make the piston gradually drop enough, which will increase the total bacterial count of raw ducks before pickling and the chance of gastrointestinal rupture polluting the duck body When ducks are slaughtered, if they are excessively excited, it will lead to muscle congestion or insufficient bleeding. The increase of fe2+ plasma will catalyze the formation of hydroxyl radical (oh-) and accelerate the oxidation of oil [7] The harm of scalding and depilation process of ducks after slaughter is mainly caused by high or low water temperature, which causes duck body maturation and scalding, fat dissolution, muscle protein solidification, or excessive depilation with meat or duck body hair during manual and mechanical depilation, which affects the appearance and quality of products The risk of duck cleaning is the pollution caused by cutting the gastrointestinal tract. Careless inspection of visceral diseases will affect human health. Insufficient soaking to remove residual blood will accelerate the oxidation of oil The cooling of bare birds after cleaning is necessary to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms, especially when the temperature is higher than 20 ℃, the pre cooling treatment of bare birds is absolutely necessary

2.2 risks in the production process of salted duck

the production of salted duck is to pickle, roast and reshape the cooled Light poultry

generally, the salting of pre cooled light birds is to dry salted with g salt per kilogram of duck body, and then impregnated with brine containing various spices, monosodium glutamate and other seasonings The biggest risk of the curing process is microbial pollution and reproduction, including oil rancidity We have observed that the acid value of each kilogram of naked poultry is 0.420 mg when it is salted with 50 g of salt at 5 ℃ for 24 hours G-1, 0.977 mg when pickled at 30 ℃ g-1.

salted duck should also pay attention to the cleanliness and hygiene of seasoning When some brine materials are reused, microorganisms should be prevented from exceeding the standard The harm of roast salted duck is the degradation and rancidity of oil The baking temperature of Shayang salted duck is mostly ℃, and the time is 48 hours. Under this condition, there is a lot of oil flowing, and the oil is oxidized Generally, after drying, the result (TBA value) determined by the 2-thiobarbituric acid test method of dry salted duck is about 0.55g malondialdehyde per kilogram of meat sample The lowest TBA value after antioxidant treatment is 0.22-1; The acid value is 1.04 mg G-1 or so

the cured duck should be reshaped and packed immediately after baking Due to the dried duck body deformation, the sternum protrudes due to muscle drying and contraction, and can be packed only after plastic surgery The hazards of canned duck in vacuum sealing packaging are contamination by miscellaneous bacteria, loss of vacuum due to the puncture of duck bones into plastic packaging bags, and easy to be contaminated by microorganisms It has been observed that the total amount of microorganisms in ducks after baking is about 3.3 × 103 G - 1, but increased to 25 after plastic packaging × 103 G - 1, increased to 31 after storage for 1 week × 103 G-1. Therefore, it is necessary to do a good job in packaging and reshaping in a bacteria free (less) environment

2.3 risks in the storage and transportation process of salted duck

in the storage and transportation process of packaged salted duck, the most prominent hazards and risks are: first, the rancidity of oil, second, the proliferation of microorganisms, and third, the bag is broken and air leaks, and its severity increases with time Therefore, it should be stored at low temperature and prevented from large vibration transportation as far as possible, and the current situation of random storage of salted duck should be changed

2.4 hazards caused by staff and the environment

in the process of processing salted duck, personnel hygiene awareness and hygiene assurance are important links to ensure product quality The acid value of salted duck stored at room temperature for 30 days was 2.72 mg G - 1, which is close to the allowable value in the national standard (GB 2732.88) In particular, the personal hygiene requirements of operators in the plastic packaging process are very strict. It is necessary to prevent the duck body from being polluted by harmful bacteria due to unclean hands or non-standard operation The whole process of processing salted duck, including temporary breeding, cleaning, slaughtering, unhairing, cleaning, pre cooling, pickling, baking, packaging, storage and transportation, the environment should be kept clean and hygienic, and the product production should be carried out in strict accordance with the production and operation procedures and enterprise management regulations$ Page break $

3 establishment of key control points

3.1 raw duck

duck with lean meat and weight of G should be selected for duck processing Ducks should have no sense of obesity, good spirit, health, no abnormalities, and no pollution by harmful substances such as pesticides, heavy metals and antibiotics Before slaughter, ducks should be strictly examined by veterinarians, focusing on those who are listless, fluffy, slow-moving, living alone in groups, and have abnormal calls At the same time, a 12 hour hunger strike should be carried out, only water should be supplied, and then the duck body should be cleaned and disinfected. After passing through the cleaning pool, the duck should be driven into the disinfection room for spraying treatment (hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide) to reduce the pollution caused by the slaughter process

3.2 slaughtering

this key control point requires: (1) ducks should be hung on the conveyor frame, first anesthetized with 85 V voltage for 2 seconds, and then arterial bleeding method should be used, and the bleeding should be clean; (2) The slaughtering room should be equipped with ultraviolet lights, and the lights should be turned on for 1 hour before work. The workshop and relevant equipment should be cleaned and spray disinfectant (0.05% 103 building petroleum asphalt peracetic acid) before and after slaughtering; (3) Depilate immediately after slaughter, and try to shorten the time from bleeding to scalding

3.3 depilation

depilation should master the water temperature and scalding time Soak and scald with a hanger, and automatically control the temperature The scalding temperature is (80 ± 3) ℃, and the time is min. experienced workers should be selected to operate this process The temperature and scalding time should be flexibly controlled according to the size and characteristics of the duck body, so as to prevent the body from being damaged or scalded during mechanical and artificial depilation The depilated rosin should meet the requirements of relevant national quality standards. In addition, special depilation wax should be used to remove small fluff

3.4 clean bore

clean bore should be done well: cut the anus and breach from the specified position of the duck abdomen, never damage the intestines and stomach, remove the duck's lungs, esophagus and larynx, and clean the residual blood in the bore after taking out the internal organs; The temperature of the clean chamber should be controlled at about (10 ± 2) ℃, and the room should be clean and equipped with UV lamp; Veterinary health inspection and quality inspection should be carried out on the duck body and viscera after cleaning, so as to eliminate sick ducks and ducks that do not meet the commodity requirements Viscera and waste should be treated in a special processing room

3.5 precooling

at this key control point, it is required to quickly cool the cleaned smooth duck to about 5 ℃ Precooling is carried out in two stages. The water temperature of the first and second stages is 10 ℃ and 1 ℃ respectively, and the precooling time is about 30 minutes The company's sintering process structure optimization and adjustment high white aluminum hydroxide project and soluble aluminum hydroxide project are under feasibility study. The pre cooling water can be recycled after coarse filtration and ultrafiltration according to the pollution at any time The pre cooling water should be treated with ultraviolet sterilization If the total number of microorganisms exceeds 106 Replace the pre cooling water at L-1 The pre cooled duck body should be centrifugally dried

3.6 pickling

when pickling, salt water without (less) bacteria should be prepared first, and the ratio of salt to water is 3:97 (including some seasoning liquid and nitrate). The duck body should be injected with a salt water injection machine at multiple points, and then soaked in saturated salt water for 5 minutes, which requires that it be carried out at room temperature of 10 ℃ After soaking, put the duck into a low-temperature vacuum kneading machine or a special vacuum rotary juicer, and add the brine The kneading machine or juicing machine can marinate the head duck once (enough to fill 1 baking room), rotate every minute, adjust the vacuum degree to 10 kPa, and adjust the temperature to ℃, which can effectively inhibit the growth of microorganisms including Botox The curing time is about 8 hours The formula of brine should be stable and quantitative, and all kinds of ingredients should be clean, hygienic and less bacteria

3.7 baking

baking at ℃ will reduce the total bacterial count of duck body, but the rancidity of oil is significantly aggravated In order to ensure the quality of the cured duck after roasting, the two-stage roasting method can be adopted, that is, the salted duck is first baked at 80 ℃ for 3 hours, allowing more water to evaporate and inhibiting the growth and reproduction of most microorganisms, and then dried at 65 ℃ (the water accounts for 20% of the duck's body weight) Before baking, the duck body should be supported by bamboo sticks, and the bamboo sticks should be disinfected During the baking process, the duck's position should be adjusted regularly (1.5 h), and it should be rotated from time to time, so that each duck's body can be heated and dehydrated uniformly

3.8 plastic packaging

this key point hides the risk of serious microbial pollution and packaging air leakage Therefore, it is required that: (1) the plastic packaging workshop should be strictly controlled

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI